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People's Daily: promoting high quality economic development with urban agglomeration

date: 2018-08-22
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The 19th CPC national congress report pointed out that the main body of urban agglomeration is to build the urban pattern of coordinated development of large, small and medium-sized cities and small towns.Building world-class urban agglomerations, giving play to their important role in optimizing spatial distribution and agglomerating production factors, and promoting quality, efficiency and power changes in regional economic development are important contents of implementing regional coordinated development strategies.




Urban agglomeration is an important symbol of economic development




The rise of urban agglomerations is an important sign of economic development to a certain stage, and has a great driving effect on economic development.




With the rapid development of open economy, world-class urban agglomerations are rising in the bay area.Since the 1960s, with the rapid development of the world economy and the deepening of economic globalization, various production factors have been increasingly concentrated in the bay area and the coastal port area has developed rapidly, forming the bay area city cluster based on world-class port, driven by industrial agglomeration and supported by vast hinterland.Most of the bay area city clusters are highly integrated with coastal economy, port economy, urban economy and network economy. This unique economic pattern is the aggregation of coastal trade, urban business circle and bay area geographical form.




Urban agglomeration is an important engine of economic development.Scale effect, technology spillover and imperfect competition will lead economic activities to concentrate in space. Under the action of market mechanism, various production factors will also spontaneously gather in regions with high capital return.Such concentration and agglomeration are mostly realized in cities. When it reaches a certain stage of development, urban agglomeration is gradually formed.Urban agglomerations are conducive to promoting free flow of factors and continuously expanding market boundaries.Facilitate the formation of economies of scale, reduce the cost of production and transaction costs;It is conducive to the division of labor, knowledge spillover, positive externalities, innovation and increasing returns.It is conducive to forming a reasonable pattern of development and a sound coordination mechanism in the region.Through leading regional economic transformation and upgrading, efficient allocation of resources and diffusion of technological change, urban agglomerations play an important role in enhancing regional economic vitality and improving regional economic efficiency.




Common features of world-class urban agglomerations




World-class urban agglomerations such as Tokyo bay area, New York bay area, San Francisco bay area and greater London metropolitan area are the financial center, industrial center and innovation center of the country in which they are located, with a vibrant innovation system of production, education and research, beautiful natural ecology and innovative culture that embraces failure.On the whole, world-class urban agglomerations share some common features.




Has the internationalization vision and the innovation function area concurrently the core city.The core cities of urban agglomerations are at the forefront of opening-up and are the gateway for the cross-border flow of high-end production factors.The concentration of highly open environment and high-end elements makes it easier to incubate innovative enterprises, so core cities have a good innovation foundation.The open, inclusive and diversified innovation culture as well as the perfect industry-university-research innovation system have greatly improved the innovation capacity of core cities, and driven the development of surrounding small and medium-sized cities through demonstration effect and spillover effect.




It has a networked infrastructure.Efficient and convenient modern market system cannot be separated from developed transportation network.World-class urban agglomerations are equipped with modern urban rail transit, complete inter-city infrastructure, developed shipping functions and favorable market environment, and gradually extend to the hinterland.The network infrastructure is conducive to reducing the cost of goods transportation and promoting the free flow of resources. It can not only promote the industrial cooperation between the core cities of the bay area and the surrounding small and medium-sized cities, but also promote the positive interaction between the urban cluster and the vast hinterland and realize the coordinated development of the region.




Have unified regional governance mechanism.Most world-class urban agglomerations attach great importance to overall planning in terms of inter-city infrastructure connection, industrial structure complementation, public service equalization and ecological and environmental protection.For example, in addition to the unified great Tokyo planning of the Tokyo bay area, each region also has its own planning, and the coordination and connection of various plans are mostly completed by think tanks.The overall planning for the New York bay area is done by the New York regional planning association, a cross-administrative association.The regional governance mechanisms established in the San Francisco bay area cover infrastructure, ecological protection, air quality and other aspects, aiming to promote the coordinated development of the region.In 1937, in order to solve the problem of overpopulation concentration in London, the British government established the "barrow commission", and based on the report submitted by the committee, prepared the first grand London plan, which laid the spatial pattern of greater London metropolitan area.




Practical exploration of urban agglomeration construction in China




Beijing-tianjin-hebei city cluster.The beijing-tianjin-hebei city cluster includes Beijing, tianjin and 11 cities in hebei province. Beijing and tianjin are two core cities.For a long time, as Beijing bears too many non-capital functions, on the one hand, the problem of "big city disease" is more prominent, on the other hand, the economic radiation effect on surrounding areas is not strong enough.Therefore, the 19th CPC national congress report pointed out that the "cow nose" should be used to facilitate the coordinated development of Beijing, tianjin and hebei, as well as the construction of xiongan new area with high starting point planning and high standards.Xiongan new area is the place where Beijing's non-capital functions are unpacked, and it is also an innovative development demonstration area to implement the new development concept.




The Yangtze river delta city cluster.According to the Yangtze river delta city cluster development plan, the Yangtze river delta city cluster is composed of 26 cities.From the perspective of urban positioning, Shanghai is committed to building an international economic center, an international financial center, an international trade center and an international shipping center.Nanjing and suzhou are the national advanced manufacturing centers, and five cities in south jiangsu play an important role in the development of new manufacturing industries.Nantong set up tongzhou bay jianghai joint development demonstration zone to build jiangsu coastal emerging regional hub port;The Yangtze river city cluster provides a vast economic hinterland for Shanghai.Hangzhou is an "Internet +" twin innovation center with a brand new business model and well-known Internet companies such as alibaba and netease.Ningbo is an important port city and manufacturing base. The cargo throughput of ningbo - zhoushan port ranks first in China.Hefei has built a world-class new display panel production base and initially formed an advanced manufacturing system led by strategic emerging industries.




Guangdong-hong kong-macao greater bay area city cluster.The guangdong-hong kong-macao greater bay area city cluster includes nine cities including guangzhou and two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao.The guangdong-hong kong-macao greater bay area presents a diversified industrial pattern.Shenzhen is a leading innovative city in China with electronic information industry, biological medicine, new energy and other high-tech industries.Guangzhou is a high-end manufacturing center and trade hub in south China. Automobile manufacturing and major equipment manufacturing industries have developed rapidly.Except shenzhen and guangzhou, the industrial differentiation degree of other cities in pearl river delta is not obvious.Hong Kong is an international financial center with developed trade, logistics and financial services industries.In recent years, Macao has been committed to building a Portuguese business cooperation service platform and a world tourism and leisure center.If the financial capital of Hong Kong, the innovation of shenzhen and the manufacturing industry in the pearl river delta further form a benign interaction, the integrated development of the guangdong-hong kong-macao greater bay area will reach a higher level and play a bigger role.




The path of high-quality development of urban agglomeration economy




The development experience of world-class urban agglomerations shows that high-quality urban agglomerations can optimize the regional development pattern and drive the high-quality development of the whole economy.To promote the sustainable and healthy development of urban agglomerations, we can start from the following three aspects.




Building an interconnected infrastructure network.The common characteristics of world-class urban agglomerations are close internal relations and highly open to the outside world, and free flow of production factors within the region.This requires networking infrastructure that covers transport, energy and public services.First, study and formulate development plans beyond the provincial level to build an efficient and convenient modern comprehensive transportation system.We will open up "guillotine roads" between different administrative regions, vigorously develop inter-city rail transit, and make up for shortfalls in infrastructure.Second, we should establish a stable and efficient energy and water supply system, realize the pricing of oil, gas, electricity and water resources of the same type in the region, and create an integrated metropolitan area.Third, establish regional public transportation, medical and health care and community service settlement centers, promote the interconnection and sharing of public facilities and services within the region, and realize the "one-card" public service.




Establish and improve effective cooperation mechanisms.To achieve the coordinated development of all cities in the urban agglomeration, we must promote the deep integration of public services and accelerate the construction of regional integrated markets.To this end, an effective cooperation mechanism needs to be established and improved.First, we should strengthen top-level design, improve regional coordination mechanisms, break through administrative constraints on regional coordinated development, and promote the free flow and optimal allocation of such production factors as capital, technology, property rights, talent and labor within the region.Second, we need to adjust the layout of urban agglomerations' productive forces, accelerate industrial synergy and collaboration, and promote the differentiated development of cities.Third, we should optimize the spatial structure of urban agglomerations, establish a normalized urban communication and coordination mechanism, promote cooperation among cities, realize resource complementarity and functional integration, and improve the comprehensive carrying capacity of cities.




To build world-class talent gathering highland.Talent is the most important factor of production and the subject of innovation.The first strategy of China's urban agglomeration development should be to build a highland for world-class talents, so that the talents can be "attracted", "motivated" and "retained".First, according to the orientation of functional areas, talent will be attracted by planning, talent will be attracted by industry, talent will be attracted by market, and the vicious competition of talent introduction between cities will be avoided to realize the optimal allocation of talents of different types and levels.Second, we will strengthen the construction of public service facilities such as innovation and entrepreneurship service platforms and intellectual property trading platforms, create an environment conducive to innovation and entrepreneurship, and enable talents to make their skills and knowledge available.Third, we will strengthen the supply of public goods and services and promote equal access to basic public services.We will accelerate reform of the household registration system, vigorously promote the construction of public and low-rent housing, and reduce the cost of housing for new citizens.We will reform the administrative review and approval system, and promote the experience of "no face to face review and approval" and "one run at most" in handling tax matters, so as to lower the threshold for entry and enable all kinds of talents to "stay", becoming the first element in the development of urban agglomerations.


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